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Методические указания и контольные работы по английскому языку для студентов-заочников 3 курса исторического факультета Выпуск 6





ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ АГЕНСТВО ПО ОБРАЗОВАНИЮ

Федеральное государственное образовательное учреждение

высшего профессионального образования

«ЮЖНЫЙ ФЕДЕРАЛЬНЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ»


Гогенко В.В., Пасько О.В.


МЕТОДИЧЕСКИЕ УКАЗАНИЯ И КОНТОЛЬНЫЕ РАБОТЫ

по английскому языку для студентов-заочников 3 курса исторического факультета


Выпуск 6


Ростов – на – Дону

2008


Учебно-методические указания разработаны преподавателем кафедры английского языка гуманитарных факультетов В.В. Гогенко, преподавателем кафедры английского языка гуманитарных факультетов О.В. Пасько.


Ответственный редактор доц. С. Л. Баркова


Компьютерный набор и верстка преп. В.В. Гогенко, преп. О.В. Пасько


Печатается в соответствии с решением кафедры английского языка гуманитарных факультетов ЮФУ, протокол № 10 от 21 марта 2008г.


^ МЕТОДИЧЕСКАЯ ЗАПИСКА

Основной целью обучения студентов английскому языку в неязыковом вузе является практическое владение этим языком, что предполагает при заочном обучении формирование умения самостоятельно читать литературу по специальности с целью извлечения информации из иноязычных источников, развитие навыков устной речи (говорение и аудирование) в рамках определенной Программой тематики. Для контроля понимания прочитанного, в качестве способа передачи полученной при чтении информации, а также как средство обучения используется перевод.

Особенностью заочного обучения является то, что объём самостоятельной работы студента по выработке речевых навыков и умений значительно превышает объём практических аудиторных занятий с преподавателем, поэтому для того, чтобы добиться успеха, необходимы систематические самостоятельные занятия.

Самостоятельная работа студента по изучению иностранного языка включает в себя заучивание лексических единиц, овладение правилами словообразования и грамматики, чтение текстов вслух в соответствии с правилами чтения, построение вопросов и ответов к текстам, перевод на русский язык устный и письменный.

Работая над учебным материалом, подлежащим обязательному изучению в течение семестра, студент должен вести словарь, выписывая слова с транскрипцией и в словарной форме. Словарь и тетрадь с выполненными упражнениями должны быть представлены преподавателю.

В выпуске 6 представлены варианты контрольного задания №6.

Прежде чем приступить к выполнению контрольной работы, следует изучить и закрепить с помощью упражнений грамматический материал семестра. Контрольные работы должны выполняться аккуратно, четким почерком. При выполнении контрольной работы следует оставлять в тетради широкие поля для замечаний рецензента.

Материал контрольной работы следует располагать в тетради по следующему образцу:

Левая страница

Правая страница

Поля Английский текст

Русский текст Поля








Задания должны быть выполнены полностью и в той последовательности, в которой они предложены: условия их необходимо переписывать. Контрольная работа должна быть выполнена в отдельной тетради, на обложке которой следует указать номер контрольного задания, номер варианта, факультет, отделение и фамилию студента. Преподавателю на проверку должен быть представлен только один вариант контрольного задания; остальные варианты используются в качестве дополнительного материала.

Если контрольная работа выполнена без соблюдения указанных требований или неполностью, она возвращается без проверки.


^ КОНТРОЛЬНОЕ ЗАДАНИЕ №6

Для того чтобы правильно выполнить контрольное задание №6, необходимо усвоить следующий грамматический материал:


  1. Согласование времен.

  2. Косвенная речь. Правила перевода прямой речи в косвенную. Глаголы, заменяющие слова автора.

  3. Словообразование. Суффиксы и префиксы существительных, прилагательных, глаголов; отрицательные префиксы.

  4. Времена активного залога: Present Simple, Present Continuous, Present Perfect, present Perfect Continuous, Past Simple, Past Continuous, Past Perfect, Past Perfect Continuous, Future Simple, Future Continuous, Future Perfect.

  5. Пассивный залог.

  6. Предлоги времени: in, at, on, during, for, after, before.

  7. Предлоги места и направления: on, at, in, among, between, across, through, up, above.

  8. Артикли.

Образец выполнения контрольного задания №6


Левая страница Правая страница


№1 Раскройте скобки и поставьте глаголы в нужное время (Present Simple, Present Continuous, Present Perfect, present Perfect Continuous, Past Simple, Past Continuous, Past Perfect, Past Perfect Continuous, Future Simple, Future Continuous, Future Perfect). Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык:


Поля

  1. It was very stuffy in the room, so I (to open) the window.

  1. It was very stuffy in the room, so I opened the window.

В комнате было очень душно, поэтому я открыла окно.

Поля


№2 Употребите следующие предложения как придаточные дополнительные, в роли главных используя предложения, данные в скобках. Изменяйте времена в соответствии с правилом согласования времен. Перепишите переделанные предложения и переведите их на русский язык:


Поля

1) “I have never been abroad.” (She said…)

1) She said that she had never been abroad.

Она сказала, что никогда не была за границей.

Поля



№3 Раскройте скобки и выберите нужную пассивную форму глагола, укажите время. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык:


Поля

  1. He (was fired/had been fired) because of being rude to his boss.

  1. He was fired because of being rude to his boss. – Past Simple Passive

Его уволили из-за грубого обращения с начальником.

Поля


№4 Переведите диалог и передайте его в косвенной речи, переделывая каждое предложение:


Поля

Ann: Do you like my bike?

Ben: Yes, it’s a fine bicycle.

Ann asked if Ben liked her bike.

Ben said that it was a fine bicycle.



Аня спросила Бена нравится ли ему ее велосипед.

Бен ответил, что велосипед хороший.

Поля


№5 Закончите предложения, образовав требующуюся часть речи (часть речи указана в скобках). Перепишите и переведите предложения на русский язык:


Поля

  1. There is a …. that she will be studying abroad next year. (possible) (существительное)

  1. There is a possibility that she will be studying abroad next year.

Существует вероятность того, что она будет учиться за границей в следующем году.

Поля


№6 а) Раскройте скобки и выберите подходящий предлог времени. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык:


Поля

  1. I’m meeting him (on/in) Saturday.

  1. I’m meeting him on Saturday.

Я встречаюсь с ним в субботу.

Поля


b) Раскройте скобки и выберите подходящий предлог места и направления. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык:


Поля

1) (At/In) the end of the lesson the teacher gave us the home task.

  1. At the end of the lesson the teacher gave us the home task.

В конце занятия учитель задал нам домашнее задание.

Поля


№7 Исправьте ошибки в употреблении артиклей, вставьте артикли, где необходимо. Перепишите исправленные предложения и переведите их на русский язык:


Поля

  1. The Moscow is the capital of Russia.

1) ^ Moscow is the capital of Russia.

Москва – столица России.

Поля



Вариант №1


№1 Раскройте скобки и поставьте глаголы в нужное время (Present Simple, Present Continuous, Present Perfect, present Perfect Continuous, Past Simple, Past Continuous, Past Perfect, Past Perfect Continuous, Future Simple, Future Continuous, Future Perfect). Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык:


  1. At seven o’clock I (to go) to the theatre.

  2. What (to do) your brother? – He (to be) a historian.

  3. By the time the firemen (to arrive), the house was burnt down.

  4. I never (to see) snow. I hope to see it when winter (to come).

  5. How long you (to read) this book? – For half an hour.

  6. By the end of the summer we (to complete) the greater part of our task.

  7. He got there sooner than we (to expect).

  8. When he got home his father already (to repair) TV for 15 minutes.


№2 Употребите следующие предложения как придаточные дополнительные, в роли главных используя предложения, данные в скобках. Изменяйте времена в соответствии с правилом согласования времен. Перепишите переделанные предложения:


  1. “I am going to Paris soon”. (She said …)

  2. “It’s time to start revising for the exam”. (The teacher told the students…)

  3. “Don’t leave the door unlocked”. (She warned them…)

  4. “You will fall and break your leg”. (I was afraid…)

  5. My friend has never been to Washington. (I knew…)


№3 Раскройте скобки и выберите нужную пассивную форму глагола, укажите время. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык:


  1. There isn’t any food left. All of it (was eaten/has been eaten).

  2. I couldn’t wear my suit last Saturday. It (was cleaned/was being cleaned).

  3. Wine (is produced/has been produced) in many parts of France.

  4. I can’t find my car anywhere. I think it (was stolen/has been stolen).

  5. We didn’t go to the party on Sunday because we (were not invited/hadn’t been invited).

  6. How many languages (are spoken/are being spoken) in Switzerland?

  7. “What’s going on in the hall?” – “The windows (are washed/are being washed).”

  8. Our house (was broken into/had been broken into) last week.


№4 Переведите диалог и передайте его в косвенной речи, переделывая каждое предложение:


^ After the holidays.

Peter: It’s nice to see you, Helen. How are you?

Helen: Good morning, Peter. Hope you are well. Haven’t seen you for ages. Where have you been all this time?

Peter: I’ve just arrived from Brighton. I spent my holidays at the seaside. Have you ever been there?

^ Helen: Yes, I was there last year. It’s a nice place, isn’t it? I hope you enjoyed yourself greatly.

Peter: Oh, yes. I had a very nice time. The weather was fine. I swam much, lay in the sun and made a lot of friends.

Helen: Did you go to Brighton alone?

Peter: No, together with my cousin Dick. You remember him, don’t you?

^ Helen: Sure. Has he finished school yet?

Peter: Yes, he is a student at Oxford University. And how are you getting on? I haven’t heard from you lately.

Helen: I’m quite all right, thank you. Come and see me some day, will you?


№5 Закончите предложения, образовав требующуюся часть речи (часть речи указана в скобках). Перепишите и переведите предложения на русский язык:


  1. You should consider your options ( to care) before making decision. (наречие)

  2. Many youth (to organize) offer summer enrichment programs. (существительное)

  3. Everyone should have basic (to know) of first aid procedures. (существительное)

  4. The (to entertain) committee is organizing a spring carnival. (прилагательное)

  5. Scientists have (recent) discovered another planet in our galaxy. (наречие)

  6. Even though he was very (wealth) , he was not a happy man. (прилагательное)

  7. We need to find a (to solve) to our economic problems. (существительное)

  8. It is (extreme) likely that we will see man land on Mars in the near future. (наречие)


№6 а) Раскройте скобки и выберите подходящий предлог времени. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык:


  1. The conference lasted (for/during) a week.

  2. We start our work (at/on) 8 a.m. and finish (at/on) 5 p.m.

  3. Could we meet (in/on) Monday?

  4. (At/On) weekends we usually go to the country.

  5. The accident happened (in/at) night.

b) Раскройте скобки и выберите подходящий предлог места и направления. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык:


  1. They live (above/up) us.

  2. Is there any wine (in/at) the bottle?

  3. We passed (across/through) the bridge.

  4. Exercise №5 is (on/at) the bottom of the page.

  5. They went (for/to) the station by bus.


№7 Исправьте ошибки в употреблении артиклей, вставьте артикли, где необходимо. Перепишите исправленные предложения и переведите их на русский язык:


  1. My friend is the guide. He is the good interpreter.

  2. They are tourists from the Asia.

  3. I’m going to have a nap for the hour or two.

  4. Once upon time there lived king.

  5. Custom is a second nature.

  6. A good advice is what you need.

  7. He catches the fish for a pleasure.

  8. The Latin is the basis of many languages.

  9. The kangaroo is associated with the Australia.

  10. Who invented a telescope?



№8 Прочитайте текст в задании 10 и найдите в нем следующие слова и выражения:


преследует некую особую цель; чувство страха у людей; сбить с цели;

подавляя любое инакомыслие; молчаливым согласием; давления законов;

порождает идеологию; в санкционированных общественных организациях;

внешними врагами; общественное мнение настраивалось против;

способствовать достижению цели


№9 Совместите следующие слова с их значениями:


a) obstacles

1) the ability, power or right to control and command

b) movement

2) something which stands in the way and prevents action or success

c) authority

3) a set of ideas, especially one on which a political or economic system is based

d) achievement

4) a group of people who make united efforts for a particular purpose

e) diversity

5) use of bodily force to hurt or harm

f) violence

6) one’s aim or purpose; a position or object one wishes to reach or obtain

g) permit

7) the successful finishing or gaining of something

h) will

8) the condition of being different or having differences, variety

i) ideology

9) allow\ make it possible

j) goal

10) the power in the mind to choose one’s actions



№10 Переведите 1, 2, 3 абзацы текста на русский язык.


Totalitarianism


1) Totalitarianism is a form of government that theoretically permits no individual freedom and that seeks to subordinate all aspects of the individual's life to the authority of the government. Totalitarianism is often distinguished from dictatorship, despotism, or tyranny by its supplanting of all political institutions with new ones and its sweeping away of all legal, social, and political traditions. The totalitarian state pursues some special goal, such as industrialization or conquest, to the exclusion of all others.


2) All resources are directed toward its attainment regardless of the cost. Whatever might further the goal is supported; whatever might foil the goal is rejected. This obsession spawns an ideology that explains everything in terms of the goal, rationalizing all obstacles that may arise and all forces that may contend with the state. The resulting popular support permits the state the widest latitude of action of any form of government. Any dissent is branded evil, and internal political differences are not permitted. Because pursuit of the goal is the only ideological foundation for the totalitarian state, achievement of the goal can never be acknowledged.


3) Under totalitarian rule, traditional social institutions and organizations are discouraged and suppressed; thus the social fabric is weakened and people become more amenable to absorption into a single, unified movement. Participation in approved public organizations is at first encouraged and then required. Old religious and social ties are supplanted by artificial ties to the state and its ideology. As pluralism and individualism diminish, most of the people embrace the totalitarian state's ideology. The infinite diversity among individuals blurs, replaced by a mass conformity to the belief and behavior sanctioned by the state.


4) Large-scale, organized violence becomes permissible and sometimes necessary under totalitarian rule, justified by the overriding commitment to the state ideology and pursuit of the state's goal. In Nazi Germany and Stalin's Soviet Union, whole classes of people, such as the Jews and the kulaks (wealthy peasant farmers), respectively, were singled out for persecution and extinction. In each case the persecuted were linked with some external enemy and blamed for the state's troubles, and thereby public opinion was aroused against them and their fate at the hands of the military and the police was condoned.


5) Police operations within a totalitarian state often appear similar to those within a police state, but one important difference distinguishes them. In a police state the police operate according to known, consistent procedures. In a totalitarian state the police operate without the constraints of laws and regulations. The actions are unpredictable and directed by the whim of their rulers. Under Hitler and Stalin uncertainty was interwoven into the affairs of the state.


6) The German constitution of the Weimar Republic was never abrogated under Hitler, but an enabling act passed by the Republic in 1933 permitted him to amend the constitution at will, in effect nullifying it. The role of lawmaker became vested in one man. Similarly, Stalin provided a constitution for the Soviet Union in 1936 but never permitted it to become the framework of Soviet law. Instead, he was the final arbiter in the interpretation of Marxism-Leninism-Stalinism and changed his interpretations at will. Neither Hitler nor Stalin permitted change to become predictable, thus increasing the sense of terror among the people and repressing any dissent.


№11 Прочитайте текст еще раз и письменно ответьте на вопросы к нему:


  1. What does the term "totalitarianism" imply?

  2. What is the main feature that distinguishes totalitarianism from dictatorship, despotism and tyranny?

  3. How does the state's ideology influence the people under totalitarian rule?

  4. What is the nature of public opinion in totalitarian states?


№12 Определите, являются ли следующие утверждения верными (true) или неверными (false). Исправьте неверные утверждения и перепишите их.


  1. Totalitarianism is a political system in which only one political party and no rival loyalties are permitted.

  2. Under totalitarian rule all resources are directed toward the attainment of some special goal which is in fact never achieved.

  3. The activity of social institutions and organizations are encouraged and stimulated by the totalitarian government.

  4. Acquiescence is the only means of surviving under totalitarian rule.

  5. The totalitarian regime spawns lots of internal and external enemies responsible for the state's troubles and condemned by public opinion.

  6. Under totalitarianism old religious and social ties are hardly condoned.

  7. Popular support of the totalitarian state's ideology is always unanimous and sincere.

  8. Organized violence is necessary in totalitarian states as it is justified by the pursuit of the state's goal and therefore is considered legal.



Вариант №2


№1 Раскройте скобки и поставьте глаголы в нужное время (Present Simple, Present Continuous, Present Perfect, present Perfect Continuous, Past Simple, Past Continuous, Past Perfect, Past Perfect Continuous, Future Simple, Future Continuous, Future Perfect). Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык:


  1. What did you do when you (to find) out you (to lose) your wallet?

  2. Look! I believe it is Mrs. Stern who (to cross) the street.

  3. I have sworn that I (not to go) back till I (see) all the marvels of this oriental city.

  4. When I come tomorrow, they (to sit) here for 20 minutes.

  5. He admitted that he (to live) in London at various times.

  6. Who (to break) the window?

  7. He (not to listen) to the music at the moment. He (to watch) TV.

  8. “Hello! I (to try) to telephone you all week. Where you (to be)?”


№2 Употребите следующие предложения как придаточные дополнительные, в роли главных используя предложения, данные в скобках. Изменяйте времена в соответствии с правилом согласования времен. Перепишите переделанные предложения:


  1. “I can’t help you because I have too much work to do”. (She said…)

  2. “Would you like to come to my party?” (He invited her…)

  3. “Don’t be stupid.” (She told me…)

  4. The children were playing in the yard. (She thought…)

  5. Her friend will come to see her. (She hoped…)


№3 Раскройте скобки и выберите нужную пассивную форму глагола, укажите время. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык:


  1. By the time I arrived at the concert hall, there were no tickets left. They (were sold/had been sold).

  2. The tower of London (was built/is built) at the beginning of the eleventh century.

  3. We couldn’t use the photocopier yesterday morning. It (was repaired/was being repaired).

  4. A compass (is used/is being used) for showing direction.

  5. Have you heard? The old police station (was repainted/has been repainted).

  6. Millions of cars (are exported/are being exported) from Japan every month.

  7. I (was being frighten/was frighten) when I drove through Paris last Month.

  8. “What’s happened?” – “The window (has been broken/was broken).”


№4 Переведите диалог и передайте его в косвенной речи, переделывая каждое предложение:


Professor: What is history?

Student: It’s a science dealing with the development of human society.

Professor: When did historical thought appear?

Student: I think it goes as far back as the 4th-3rd millennium B.C.

Professor: You are quite right. Could you give me the names of the most famous ancient historians?

Student: Certainly. They are: Herodotus, who was the “father of History”, Xenophon and Polybius. They all come from Ancient Greece. As to the historians of Ancient Rome, Titus, Tacitus and Plutarch are most well-known.

Professor: That’s right. What can be said about the first historical writings?

Student: As far as I know they were stone inscriptions, reviews and chronicles showing various events in Egypt, Babylon, Assyria and Persia.

Professor: Exactly so. Do you know any Russian historians of the 18th or 19th centuries?

^ Student: If I’m not mistaken, Russian historiography is represented by Karamzin, Granovsky, Solovyev, Kluchevsky and others.

Professor: So much for today. See you tomorrow.


№5 Закончите предложения, образовав требующуюся часть речи (часть речи указана в скобках). Перепишите и переведите предложения на русский язык:


  1. Our (to correspond) over the years has helped us build a good relationship. (существительное)

  2. Travelling by train is far more (comfort) than traveling by bus. (прилагательное)

  3. It is sad that so many older people are afraid and (lone) in today’s society. (прилагательное)

  4. Some unusual stamps are (special) rare and expensive. (наречие)

  5. There is a great (to vary) of flowers growing in our garden. (существительное)

  6. The clerk’s attitude was not only (to help) but also very rude. (прилагательное)

  7. Her high-heeled shoes were quite (to suit) for the rocky road. (прилагательное)

  8. The firefighters moved into (to act) as soon as the alarm sounded. (существительное)


№6 а) Раскройте скобки и выберите подходящий предлог времени. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык:


  1. (During/for) the meeting the chief engineer spoke several times.

  2. Mr. Brown is out. He’ll be back (in/after) an hour.

  3. The competition should take place (in/on) Wednesday morning.

  4. I can’t sleep (in/at) night. I have insomnia.

  5. He was sitting (among/between) Nina and Jane.


b) Раскройте скобки и выберите подходящий предлог места и направления. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык:


  1. There is nothing (on/in) the bottle.

  2. The post office is (at/in) the end of the street.

  3. The village is (among/between) the trees.

  4. Hang the picture (on/at) the hook.

  5. She looked (across/through) the window.


№7 Исправьте ошибки в употреблении артиклей, вставьте артикли, где необходимо. Перепишите исправленные предложения и переведите их на русский язык:


  1. The Russian language of a twentieth century differs from the Russian language of a twenty first century.

  2. What’s a weather like today?

  3. His is the interpreter from the Dutch into the English.

  4. A sun rises on the East.

  5. Everything will be done in the flick of an eyelash.

  6. The every Sunday I watch the programme “The Magic of the Word.”

  7. More snow, better for crops.

  8. My house is a third to a right.

  9. What languages are spoken in the Argentina?

  10. The last year they staged a new play.



№8 Прочитайте текст в задании 10 и найдите в нем следующие слова и выражения:


подавление основных гражданских свобод; проводить далеко идущие социальные реформы; нацистская Германия; военная диктатура; душить оппозицию;

явиться стимулом; выступать в союзе с кем-то; запугивание; настоятельная необходимость выживания нации; увеличение полномочий исполнительной власти; оказаться несостоятельным


№9 Совместите следующие слова с их значениями:


a) maintain

1) family origins of a stated type

b) decline

2) of or based on a political system in which every citizen is subject to the power of the state, which exercises complete control over all areas of life

c) descent

3) to keep in existence

d) inherit

4) refusal to agree, especially with an opinion that is held by most people

e) capture

5) a ruler with complete power, usually gained unjustly and by force, who rules cruelly and unjustly

f) totalitarian

6) movement to a lower or worse position

g) dissent

7) to receive property, title, etc. left by someone who has died

h) survive

8) to take control of something by force from an enemy; win, gain

i) tyrant

9) believing or demanding that rules and laws must always be obeyed whether or not they are right

j) authoritarian

10) to continue to live or exist, especially after coming close to death



№10 Переведите 1, 2, 6 абзацы текста на русский язык.


Dictatorship


  1. Dictatorship is a form of government in which one person or a small group possesses absolute power without effective constitutional limitations. The term dictatorship comes from the Latin title dictator, which in the Roman Republic designated a temporary magistrate who was granted extraordinary powers in order to deal with state crises. Modern dictators, however, resemble ancient tyrants rather than ancient dictators. Ancient philosophers' descriptions of the tyrannies of Greece and Sicily go far toward characterizing modern dictatorships. Dictators usually resort to force or fraud to gain despotic political power, which they maintain through the use of intimidation, terror, and the suppression of basic civil liberties. They may also employ techniques of mass propaganda in order to sustain their public support.




  1. With the decline and disappearance in the 19th and 20th centuries of monarchies based on hereditary descent, dictatorship became one of the two chief forms of government in use by nations throughout the world, the other being constitutional democracy. Rule by dictators has taken several different forms. In Latin America in the 19th century, various dictators arose after effective central authority had collapsed in the new nations recently freed from Spanish colonial rule. These self-proclaimed leaders usually led a private army and tried to establish control over a territory before marching upon a weak national government.




  1. Later 20th century dictators in Latin America were different. They were national rather than provincial leaders and often were put in their position of power by nationalistic military officers, as was Juan Peron of Argentina. They usually allied themselves with a particular social class, and attempted either to maintain the interests of wealthy and privileged elites or to institute far-reaching left-wing social reforms.




  1. In the new states of Africa and Asia after World War II, dictators quickly established themselves on the ruins of constitutional arrangements inherited from the Western colonial powers that had proved unworkable in the absence of a strong middle class and in the face of local traditions of autocratic rule. In some of such countries, elected presidents and prime ministers captured personal power by establishing one-party rule and suppressing the opposition, while in others the army seized power and established military dictatorships.




  1. The communist and fascist dictatorships that arose in various technologically advanced countries in the first half of the 20th century were distinctively different from the authoritarian regimes of Latin America or the postcolonial dictatorships of Africa and Asia. Nazi Germany under Adolf Hitler and the Soviet Union under Joseph Stalin were the leading examples of such modern totalitarian dictatorships. The crucial elements of both were the identification of the state with a single mass party and of the party with its charismatic leader, the use of an official ideology to legitimize and maintain the regime, the use of terror and propaganda to suppress dissent and stifle opposition, and the use of modern science and technology to control the economy and individual behavior. Soviet-type communist dictatorships arose in central and eastern Europe, China, and other countries in the wake of World War II.




  1. Many forces at work in the 20th century appear to lend impetus to the rise of monocratic forms of rule. In nearly all political systems, the powers of chief executives have increased in response to the demanding social, economic, and military crises of the age. The complex decisions required of governments in a technological era, the perfectionist impulses of the great bureaucratic structures that have developed in all industrialized societies, and the imperatives of national survival in a nuclear world continue to add to the process of executive aggrandizement. The question for many constitutional regimes is whether the limitation and balance of power that are at the heart of constitutional government can survive the growing enlargement of executive power.


№11 Прочитайте текст еще раз и письменно ответьте на вопросы к нему:


  1. What is the origin of the term dictatorship?

  2. What techniques did dictators use to maintain their political power?

  3. Which two main forms of government were typical in the world in
    the 19th and 20th centuries?

  4. What are the crucial elements that differentiate communist and fascist dictatorships from authoritarian regimes of Latin America and postcolonial dictatorships of Asia and Africa?


№12 Определите, являются ли следующие утверждения верными (true) или неверными (false). Исправьте неверные утверждения и перепишите их.


  1. In the course of maintaining their despotic political power dictators don't usually neglect using techniques of mass propaganda.

  2. With the decline and disappearance of monarchies based on hereditary descent, dictatorship became the only chief form of government in use by nations throughout the world.

  3. 20th century dictators in Latin America were less national than provincial leaders.

  4. In the new states of Africa and Asia after World War II the conditions for establishing dictatorial rule were extremely unfavorable.

  5. The common crucial elements of both communist and fascist dictatorships shouldn't lead one to the conclusion that they are quite identical.

  6. Under no circumstances could constitutional democracies have anything in common with dictatorship.

  7. In nearly all political systems, the powers of chief executives decreased due to the demanding social, economic and military crises of the age.

  8. Whether the main values of constitutional ruling can survive the growing enlargement of executive power still remains unpredictable.



Вариант №3


№1 Раскройте скобки и поставьте глаголы в нужное время (Present Simple, Present Continuous, Present Perfect, present Perfect Continuous, Past Simple, Past Continuous, Past Perfect, Past Perfect Continuous, Future Simple, Future Continuous, Future Perfect). Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык:


  1. “Can you come on Sunday evening?” – “Sorry, but I (to play) volleyball.”

  2. Don’t phone between 7 and 8. Tomorrow we (to have) dinner at that time.

  3. Where have you been? I (to look) for you for the last half hour.

  4. She (to wait) for me when I arrived.

  5. “Do you see Ann very often?” – “No, I (not to see) her for three months.”

  6. We arrived at work in the morning and found that somebody (to break) into the office during the night. So we (to call) the police.

  7. I will let you know as soon as I (to find out) where the hotel is.

  8. Ted and Mary (to be married) for 20 years.


№2 Употребите следующие предложения как придаточные дополнительные, в роли главных используя предложения, данные в скобках. Изменяйте времена в соответствии с правилом согласования времен. Перепишите переделанные предложения:


  1. “Ann has bought the tickets”. (I was told…)

  2. “It took me three hours to get here because the roads are flooded”. (He told me…)

  3. “You should stop smoking”. (The doctor advised my brother …)

  4. “Could you change the light bulb for me?” (She asked me…)

  5. Our sportsmen will win the game. (We were sure…)


№3 Раскройте скобки и выберите нужную пассивную форму глагола, укажите время. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык:


  1. “Can I take these documents?” – “I’m afraid not. They (are not typed/haven’t been typed) yet.”

  2. The island (is surrounded/is being surrounded) by water.

  3. The electric bulb (was invented/is invented) by Thomas Edison.

  4. Even though construction costs are high, a new dormitory (will be built/will have been built) next year.

  5. The group was too large, so it (was divided/has been divided) into two parts.

  6. “Is the plane going to be late?” – “No, It (is expected/is being expected) to be on time.”

  7. I had to wait a little. When I came the students (were tested/were being tested).

  8. Paper, the main writing material today, (was invented/will be invented) by Chinese.


№4 Переведите диалог и передайте его в косвенной речи, переделывая каждое предложение:


^ Peter: Did your father take part in the Great Patriotic War?

Jane: Yes, he did. He is a war veteran. Now he is a retired officer, a colonel.

Peter: I see. When did he go to the front?

Jane: He says he went there at the outbreak of the war when the fascists attacked our country and our people took up arms.

^ Peter: Was he an infantryman or an artilleryman?

Jane: Neither. He served in the armor troops as a tank man.

Peter: Well. What great battles did he fight?

Jane: As far as I know he took part in the Great battle on the Volga and in that of Berlin.

^ Peter: I am sure he has told you many interesting things about those battles.

Jane: Of course, he has. For instance, speaking of the battle on the Volga he says it was the turning point because it determined the outcome of the war.

Peter: And we could pass from defensive to offensive operations, and we finally encircled a large group of German armies. Field Marshal Paulus was taken prisoner.


№5 Закончите предложения, образовав требующуюся часть речи (часть речи указана в скобках). Перепишите и переведите предложения на русский язык:


  1. His (to perform) as Hamlet was a huge success. (существительное)

  2. Many (Europe) countries now use the Euro as their official currency. (прилагательное)

  3. Being very (ambition), he graduated with top honours at a very young age. (прилагательное)

  4. Despite his nervousness he won the 100 metre race (easy) (наречие)

  5. His (to choose) of music was not to my liking. (существительное)

  6. We saw the most (beauty) sunset in Florida last year. (прилагательное)

  7. We have a lot of (free) in our choice of courses next year. (существительное)

  8. Everyone has a (responsible) to keep our city clean. (существительное)



№6 а) Раскройте скобки и выберите подходящий предлог времени. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык:


  1. (On/At) 15th of January I’m going to take an exam.

  2. I was born (on/at) 26th of July.

  3. I have been doing this work (from/since) morning.

  4. He usually goes to the gym (on/in) Friday evening.

  5. He’ll be waiting for me at hotel (at/on) 5 o’clock.


b) Раскройте скобки и выберите подходящий предлог места и направления. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык:


  1. The train went (across/through) the tunnel.

  2. He walked (up/above) the stairs.

  3. We didn’t know what to do, so (in/at) the end we decided to go (at/to) the cinema.

  4. He put the documents (on/at) the table.

  5. They found the boy (among/between) the bushes in the garden.


№7 Исправьте ошибки в употреблении артиклей, вставьте артикли, где необходимо. Перепишите исправленные предложения и переведите их на русский язык:


  1. I need an information.

  2. The supper consisted of the fish and the chips.

  3. The postmark first appeared in the England in the 1840.

  4. His name is on the tip of my tongue, but I can’t remember it.

  5. Stronger the storm, sooner it’ll pass.

  6. She has the big family and that’s why from morning till night she is as busy as the bee.

  7. The next Monday I’ll have to be in Moscow.

  8. I’m looking for the new pair of gloves.

  9. “Did you enjoy a performance?” – “It was great.”

  10. I can’t go for the walk with you.


№8. Прочитайте текст и найдите в нем следующие слова и выражения:


ультралевые; ультраправые; похищение людей; внутренние конфликты;

приверженцы анархизма; дестабилизировать существующие политические институты; люди, стоящие у власти; политическое убийство; захват заложников;

психологическая война; телерепортаж; запугивать кого-либо


№9 Совместите следующие слова с их значениями:


a) banishment

1) to murder a ruler, politician, or other important person

b) heresy

2) taking control of an aircraft using the threat of force in order to make political demands

c) victim

3) the act of causing someone severe physical pain as a punishment or to force someone to give information

d) hijacking

4) not guilty of a crime or sin; blameless

e) assassinate

5) a person, animal, or thing that suffers pain, death, harm, destruction, etc.

f) denomination

6) a complaint or cause for complaint, especially when one feels one has been unfairly treated

g) innocent

7) a belief that is against the official or accepted beliefs of a religion or other group

h) execution

8) sending away by official order from one’s own country as a punishment

i) torture

9) a religious group that is part of a larger religious body

j) grievance

10) a case of lawful killing as a punishment


№10 Переведите 1, 4, 5,6 абзацы текста на русский язык.


Terrorism


  1. Terrorism is the systematic use of terror or unpredictable violence against governments, publics, or individuals to attain a political objective. Terrorism has been used by political organizations with both rightist and leftist objectives, by nationalistic and ethnic groups, by revolutionaries, and by the armies and secret police of the governments themselves.




  1. Terrorism has been practiced throughout history and throughout the world. The ancient Greek historian Xenophon wrote of the effectiveness of psychological warfare against enemy populations. Roman emperors such as Tiberius and Caligula used banishment, expropriation of property, and execution as means to discourage opposition to their rule. The Spanish Inquisition used arbitrary arrest, torture, and execution to punish what is viewed as religious heresy. The use of terror was openly advocated by Robespierre as a means of encouraging revolutionary virtue during the French Revolution, leading to the period of his political dominance called the Reign of Terror (1793-94). After the American Civil War (1861—65) defiant Southerners formed a terrorist organization called the Ku Klux Klan to intimidate supporters of


Reconstruction. In the latter half of the 19th century, terrorism was adopted by adherents of anarchism in Western Europe, Russia, and the United States. They believed that the best way to effect revolutionary political and social change was to assassinate persons in positions of power. From 1865 to 1905 a number of kings, presidents, prime ministers, and other government officials were killed by anarchists' guns or bombs.


  1. The 20th century witnessed great changes in the use and practice of terrorism. Terrorism became the hallmark of a number of political movements stretching from the extreme right to the extreme left of the political spectrum. Technological advances such as automatic weapons and compact, electrically detonated explosives gave terrorists a new mobility and lethality.




  1. Terrorism was adopted as virtually a state policy, though an unacknowledged one, by such totalitarian regimes as those of Nazi Germany under Adolf Hitler and Soviet Union under Joseph Stalin. In these states arrest, imprisonment, torture, and execution were applied without legal guidance or restraints to create a climate of fear and to encourage adherence to the national ideology and the declared economic, social, and political goals of the state.




  1. Terrorism has most commonly become identified, however, with individuals or groups attempting to destabilize or overthrow existing political institutions. Terrorism has been used by one or both sides in anticolonial conflicts (Ireland and the United Kingdom, Algeria and France, Vietnam and France/United States), in disputes between different national groups over possession of a contested homeland (Palestinians and Israel), in conflicts between different religious denominations (Catholics and Protestants in the Northern Ireland), and in internal conflicts between revolutionary forces and established governments (Malaysia, Indonesia, etc.)

  2. Terrorism's public impact has been greatly magnified by the use of modern communications media. Any act of violence is certain to attract television coverage, which brings the event directly into millions of homes and exposes viewers to the terrorists' demands, grievances, or political goals. Modern terrorism differs from that of the past because its victims are frequently innocent civilians who are picked at random or who merely happen into terrorist situations. Many groups of terrorists in Europe hark back to the anarchists of the 19th century in their isolation from the political mainstream and the unrealistic nature of their goals. Lacking a base of popular support, extremists substitute violent acts for legitimate political activities. Such acts include kidnappings, assassinations, skyjackings, bombings, and hijackings.


№11 Прочитайте текст еще раз и письменно ответьте на вопросы к нему:


  1. What objectives are usually pursued by terrorism?

  2. What was the role and place of terrorism throughout centuries and throughout the world?

  3. Can terrorism be used in the framework of a state policy? Do you think terrorism is the only means of settling various conflicts in societies?

  4. What is the role of communications media in terrorism's public impact?


№12 Определите, являются ли следующие утверждения верными (true) или неверными (false). Исправьте неверные утверждения и перепишите их.


  1. The practice of using terrorism in its form of unpredictable violence throughout the contemporary world cannot be denied.

  2. But for terror during the French Revolution Robespierre would have never entered the period of his political dominance.

  3. Technological advances of the 20th century brought no changes into the practice of terrorism.

  4. In order to encourage adherence to the national ideology and the declared political goals of the state Nazi Germany put no obstacles to terrorism.

  5. The anarchists of the 19th century were always close to the political mainstream and put forward quite realistic demands.

  6. Due to modern communications media, millions of viewers are directly exposed to the terrorists' political goals.

  7. There are no differences between modern terrorism and terrorism of the past.

  8. Terrorism first appeared in France during the Robespierre Reign of Terror.



Вариант №4


№1 Раскройте скобки и поставьте глаголы в нужное время (Present Simple, Present Continuous, Present Perfect, present Perfect Continuous, Past Simple, Past Continuous, Past Perfect, Past Perfect Continuous, Future Simple, Future Continuous, Future Perfect). Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык:


  1. “Are you free on Tuesday?” – “I’m afraid not. I (to meet) Julia.”

  2. They (to play) for half an hour when their father got home.

  3. It was warm, so I (to take off) my coat.

  4. “What you (to do) at this time yesterday?” – “I (to prepare) for my exam.”

  5. I (to meet) a lot of people in the last few days.

  6. You (to know) each other for a long time?

  7. I tried to phone her this morning, but there (to be) no answer. She (to go) out.

  8. Next year they (to be married) for 25 years.


№2 Употребите следующие предложения как придаточные дополнительные, в роли главных используя предложения, данные в скобках. Изменяйте времена в соответствии с правилом согласования времен. Перепишите переделанные предложения:


  1. “I will come to the party”. (Ann promised …)

  2. “Can I do the washing-up?” (I offered…)

  3. “Don’t touch the wire”. (He warned me…)

  4. She made no mistakes in her dictation. (She was glad…)

  5. “You’d better apologize for being late”. (My mother advised…)


№3 Раскройте скобки и выберите нужную пассивную форму глагола, укажите время. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык:


  1. (Was anybody injured/Has anybody been injured) in the accident?

  2. “Is this an old film?” – “Yes, it (was made/had been made) in 1949.”

  3. There are a lot of students in the hall. A new film (is being showed/is showed).

  4. Maria is happy. She (was offered/has been offered) a new job.

  5. Rice (is grown/has been grown) in many countries.

  6. Dinner (is served/is being served) at six.

  7. You (will be sent/will have been sent) to Paris at the end of the month.

  8. Don’t water the plants. They (have just been watered/were just watered).


№4 Переведите диалог и передайте его в косвенной речи, переделывая каждое предложение:


Mother: Mark, we’ve run out of vegetables and we’ve hardly any bread in the house. You know, now it’s your turn to go to the greengrocer’s and to the baker’s.

^ Mark: Oh, bother! Why do we have to go shopping so often?

Mother: The day before yesterday it was Nelly who did all the shopping. She went to the grocer’s and to the butcher’s.

Mark: Did she? But, Mother, girls are so fond of shopping. Let Nelly to do it today as well.

Mother: Oh, you’ve been lazy-bones ever since you were born! It’s so difficult to make you go anywhere.

^ Mark: Do you want me to be a model boy, Mum?

Mother: I’d like to. Take that bag and don’t grumble. Buy a cabbage, a pound of onions, half a pound of carrots and a loaf of bread. Here is the money and don’t forget the change.

№5 Закончите предложения, образовав требующуюся часть речи (часть речи указана в скобках). Перепишите и переведите предложения на русский язык:


  1. Prices have increased (sharp) in relation to rising production costs. (наречие)

  2. The (true) is sometimes difficult to find. (существительное)

  3. It is a (to relate) short trip from here to Mar’s house. (наречие)

  4. There is a (possible) that she will be studying abroad next year. (существительное)

  5. Much (to prepare) is necessary before all diplomatic visits. (существительное)

  6. Many actors get (nerve) before performing on a stage. (прилагательное)

  7. The two girls had a strong and lasting (friend) (существительное)

  8. Jack was (enormous) disappointed when he failed his driving test. (наречие)


№6 а) Раскройте скобки и выберите подходящий предлог времени. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык:


  1. I haven’t seen you (for/during) ages.

  2. Our lessons start (at/on) 9 o’clock.

  3. We have known each other (since/from) childhood.

  4. He is on a business trip. He’ll return (in/after) two weeks.

  5. Are you free (on/in) Friday evening?


b) Раскройте скобки и выберите подходящий предлог места и направления. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык:


  1. The story is a dialogue (among/between) a husband and a wife.

  2. (In/At) the end of the street you’ll see a big beautiful building.

  3. Something strange was lying (on/at) the table.

  4. Look at the picture (on/at) the top of the page.

  5. She saw him (through/across) the window.


№7 Исправьте ошибки в употреблении артиклей, вставьте артикли, где необходимо. Перепишите исправленные предложения и переведите их на русский язык:


  1. Day by day the weather is getting warmer and warmer.

  2. Jeffrey Chaucer, a founder of English Literature, lived an interesting life.

  3. The Japanese are more industrious than the French.

  4. Eugene was dressed like the London dandy.

  5. What do you like better: the summer or the winter?

  6. Do you want an advice?

  7. The China is an ancient country in Middle East.

  8. I’m looking for the pair of trousers.

  9. We must drink a mineral water to be healthy.

  10. There was a little understanding between father and son.


№8 Прочитайте текст и найдите в нем следующие слова и выражения:


осуществление (применение) политической власти; выражение воли государства;

участия масс в политике; придание первостепенного значения воле большинства;

интеграция или слияние законодательной и исполнительной властей;

гибельный, роковой; связующее звено между теми, кто правит, и теми, кем управляют; набор установленных норм, принятых за основной закон; объединение множества интересов; служить примером; выборные должности в правительстве


№9 Совместите следующие слова с их значениями:


a) electorate

1) the struggle between several people or groups to win something or gain an advantage

b) suffrage

2) joining to something else so as to form a whole

c) office

3) a principle or set of principles ( especially of a religious or political kind) that is taught

d) ratify

4) an act of making a choice or decision

e) legislature

5) a government department

f) vote

6) to add strength or support to; make stronger or firmer

g) integration

7) to approve a written agreement and make it official by signing it

h) competition

8) the right to vote in national elections

i) doctrine

9) a body of people who have the power to make and change laws

j) reinforce

10) all the people in a country or an area who have the right to vote


№10 Переведите 2, 3, 4, 7 абзацы текста на русский язык.


^ Constitutional Government


1) Constitutional government is defined by the existence of a constitution - which may be a legal instrument or merely a set of fixed norms or principles generally accepted as the fundamental law of the policy - that effectively controls the exercise of political power. The essence of constitutionalism is the control of power by its distribution among several state organs or offices in such a way that they are each subjected to reciprocal controls and forced to cooperate in formulating the will of the state.


2) Although constitutional government in this sense flourished in England and in some other historical systems for a considerable period, it is only recently that it has been associated with forms of mass participation in politics. In England, for example, constitutional government was not harnessed to political democracy until after the Reform Act of 1832 and subsequent 19th-century extensions of the suffrage. In the contemporary world, however, constitutional governments are also generally democracies, and in most cases they are referred to as constitutional democracies or constitutional-democratic systems.


3) The contemporary political systems that combine constitutionalism and democracy share a common basis in the primacy they accord to the will of the majority of the people as expressed in free elections. In all such systems, political parties are key institutions, for they are the agencies by which majority opinion in a modern mass electorate is mobilized and expressed. Indeed, the history of the political party in its modern form is coincidental with the development of contemporary constitutional-democratic systems. In each case, the transition from the older forms of constitutionalism to modern constitutional democracy was accompanied by the institutionalization of parties and the development of techniques of party competition.


4) The essential functions of political parties in a constitutional democracy are the integration of a multitude of interests, beliefs, and values into one or more programs or proposals for change and the nomination of party members for elective office in the government. In both functions, the party serves as a link between the rulers and the ruled: in the first case by allowing the electorate to register an opinion on policy and in the second by giving the people a chance to choose their rulers. Of course, the centralized, autocratically directed, and ideologically orthodox one-party systems of totalitarian regimes perform neither of these functions.

5) The two major types of constitutional democracy in the modern world are exemplified by the United States and Great Britain. The United States is the leading example of the presidential system of constitutional democracy; Britain, although its system is sometimes referred to as a cabinet system in recognition of the Cabinet in the government, is the classic example of the parliamentary system.


6) The U.S. presidential system is based on the doctrine of separation of powers and distinguishes sharply between the personnel of the legislature and the executive; the British parliamentary system provides for the integration or fusion of legislature and executive. In the U.S. system the separation of legislature and executive is reinforced by their separate election and by the doctrine of checks and balances that provides constitutional support for routine disagreement between the branches; in the British system the integration of legislature and executive is reinforced by the necessity for their constant agreement, or for a condition of "confidence" between the two, if the normal processes of government are to continue.


7) In the U.S. system reciprocal controls are provided by such devices as the presidential veto of legislation the Senate's role in ratifying treaties and confirming executive nominations, congressional appropriation of funds and the executive ability to declare war, and judicial review of legislation; in the British system the major control device is the vote of "no confidence" or the rejection of legislation that is considered vital.


№11 Прочитайте текст еще раз и ответьте на следующие вопросы:


  1. What is the essence of constitutionalism?

  2. Speak of the main functions of political parties in a constitutional democracy.

  3. What are the two major types of constitutional democracy in the modern world?

  4. What is the difference between the American and the British constitutional democracies?


№12 Определите, являются ли следующие утверждения верными (true) или неверными (false). Исправьте неверные утверждения и перепишите их.


  1. Constitutional government in England has always been associated with forms of mass participation in politics.

  2. In the contemporary world constitutional governments are the same as they were in the past.

  3. The key point of modern constitutional democracies is the will of the majority of the people expressed in free elections.

  4. The United States and Great Britain are the leading examples of constitutional democracy in the modern world.

  5. The British parliamentary system provides for the separation of legislature and executive.

  6. Political parties in constitutional democracy have two functions in which the party links the rulers and the ruled.

  7. Both the United States and British systems are based on the doctrine of checks and balances.

  8. In the U.S. system the major reciprocal controls belong only to the president.



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