Методические указания и контрольные задания для студентов 1 курса железнодорожных специальностей заочной формы обучения - страница 7


I. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление времён группы Continuous (Present, Past, Future) и группы Perfect (Present, Past, Future) в действительном и страдательном залогах. Выпишите сказуемые и укажите их видовременные формы.

1. The locomotive was moving at a high speed when the engine driver saw that the line had been damaged. 2. Boeing’s new airplane is faster and more luxurious than any other vehicles which have ever been produced. 3. When we came to the station the train had already arrived, and the passengers were hurrying to occupy their seats in the carriages. 4. It has been calculated that East Japan Railway Company sells 1,000 ton of tickets annually. These tickets are now being collected and re-used in the manufacture of cardboard and toilet paper.

II. Перепишите и переведите предложения, поставив глагол в нужную форму.

1. The bridge, which (to build – Present Continuous Passive) now, (to use – Future Indefinite Passive) for the movement of both road and railway traffic. 2. The first automatic drivers (to test – Present Perfect Passive) on the underground lines. 3. The movement of trains (to stop – Past Indefinite Passive) on that section of the line because the workers (to replace – Past Continuous Active) the sleepers. 4. The train crew (to inform – Past Indefinite Passive) that the departure time (to change – Past Perfect Passive). 5. Nowadays crossties (to make – Present Indefinite Passive) of wood, concrete, steel, cast-iron; in some countries experiments (to go – Present Continuous Active) on with plastic sleepers.

III. Перепишите и переведите предложения, выбрав правильную форму сказуемого (Active or Passive).

1. Powerful track-laying machines (have developed; have been developed) for the building of railroads. 2. The road is closed because the road-works (are conducting; are being conducted). 3. Oil (uses; is used) for the production of petrol. 4. David thought that his father (had repaired; had been repaired) his bicycle. 5. At the first railways sleepers (laid; were laid) down along the track; nowadays they (lay; are laid) down transversely.

IV. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление модальных глаголов. Подчеркните модальные глаголы в английских предложениях и в переводе.

1. The dispatcher can communicate with the loco driver over long distances by means of a radiotelephone. 2. Electric train may be propelled either by electric locomotive or by motor cars. 3. Passengers should not walk across the railway lines; there is a footbridge at the end of the platform. 4. You need not go to the railway station to buy tickets because you can book them at the nearest travel agency. 5. A wagon must be cleaned before being used for another run.

V. Образуйте от данных глаголов две формы Participle I. Полученные причастия переведите на русский язык.

Model: to read – a) reading – читая, читающий;

b) having read – прочитав

1) to offer; 2) to attend; 3) to bring; 4) to discover; 5) to find; 6) to do; 7) to say; 8) to obtain; 9) to deliver; 10) to shut; 11) to ring; 12) to light; 13) to reduce; 14) to depart; 15) to implement.

VI. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление Participle I в функциях определения и обстоятельства. Подчеркните причастия I в английских предложениях и в переводе.

1. When passing the curve a tilting train need not decrease its speed. 2. All trains operating on the suburban lines are driven by electricity. 3. Having built the world’s first electric locomotive, Werner von Siemens demonstrated it at the Berlin Exhibition. 4. Each railway station has at least two tracks, those for the incoming and outcoming trains. 5. The number and the spacing of the sleepers depend on the weight of trains passing over the track.

VII. Образуйте Participle II от глаголов, данных в скобках. Полученные словосочетания перепишите и переведите.

Model: a (to write) article – a written article – написанная статья.

1) a locomotive (to power) by electricity; 2) a (to delay) flight; 3) a (to break) engine; 4) a report (to type) in duplicate; 5) a (to carry out) plan; 6) a (to suspend) bridge; 7) a contract (to sign) by 2 companies; 8) mistakes (to make) in calculations; 9) the (to develop) countries; 10) railway tickets (to sell) yesterday.

VIII. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление Participle II в функциях определения и обстоятельства. Подчеркните причастия II в английских предложениях и в переводе.

1. The first steam locomotive built by G. Stephenson could draw a small train of loaded cars at a speed of 13 miles per hour. 2. When upgraded, the track will be used for high-speed movement. 3. The engine designed by Rudolf Diesel is one of the greatest inventions of the 20th century. 4. The new materials recommended for bridge construction were described in the article written by our professor. 5. A lot of scientists invited to the conference refused to take part in it.

IX. Перепишите предложения. Задайте общие вопросы и специальные вопросы к подчеркнутым словам.

1. The two-speed escalators are being installed at new Metro stations. 2. We arranged to meet at 8 p.m. in front of the Pushkin Monument. 3. The length of the bus route has been increased by 3 km. 4. The service life of steel sleepers lasts from 35 to 60 years. 5. Tilting trains pass the curves at a high speed. 6. Electricity was used for the first time for industrial purposes in the silver workshops in Paris. 7. The rails are called T-rails because of their shape.

X. Перепишите и переведите текст.


For the first time the idea of building the underground railway in Moscow was discussed before the revolution. But the construction of the first section (from Sokolniki to Central Park) was initiated only in 1932, and lasted 3 years. It was called the record period of time by the world press. The Russian engineers carefully studied the existing underground systems abroad before working out their own project, which represents a significant improvement on the London system.

The engineering difficulties were great mainly because much of the soil was composed of running sand*. Fortunately most of the running sand lay close to the surface and it was found possible to use out-and-cover method** of construction under many of the streets. But in the center of the city where the line is 100 ft or more deep, the construction of tunnels was necessary.

The Moscow Underground consists of a circle line, which runs round the city center, several radial lines crossing the city and connecting with each other and the lines running to the countryside. Some constructional work is still going on. Now the length of the underground lines reaches about 300 km.

At present the Moscow Metro handles more than 5 million passengers each day. During peak hours trains run at a speed of 90 km per hour with the intervals of about 80 seconds. One train takes up to 1,500 passengers. For greater safety of travel all trains are inspected every 6-9 hours of running. Being in operation for about 13 hours daily each metro train covers the distance equal to that from Moscow to St. Petersburg. The trains servicing the Underground are supplied with low voltage direct current. The current is obtained from the third rail by special devices that are mounted beneath the motor coaches. Rolling stock is completely replaced approximately once every four years.

The Moscow Metro can compete with the underground railways in any of the European capitals in level of automation. At present experiments are being conducted with an “automatic driver”, i.e. with computer-controlled trains. The computer devices will help to relieve the nervous strain on the drivers and make it possible to increase the cruising speed*** of trains even more. These automatic devices have already been tested over the Circle Route by way of experiment.

Notes: *running sand – сыпучий песок, плывун

**cut-and-cover method – открытый метод (строительства)

***cruising speed – эксплуатационная скорость

XI. Ответьте на общие вопросы в соответствии с содержанием текста.

1. Was the possibility of constructing Metro in Moscow discussed before the revolution for the first time?

2. Did the building of the Moscow Underground begin in 1917?

3. Does the project of the Moscow Metro represent a significant improvement on the London system?

4. Were all lines constructed, using out-and-cover method?

5. Does the Moscow Metro consist of a circle line and 2 radial ones?

6. Is the construction of the Metro still going on?

7. Do Metro trains run with the intervals of about 8 minutes during peak hours?

8. Are all trains inspected for greater safety of travel every week?

9. Can the Moscow Metro compete with the underground lines of other countries in level of automation?

10. Will an “automatic driver” replace hard man’s labor in future?

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